Origins and Purpose
In 2017, Stanford hosted a one-time conference, "Academic Women of Color: Staying Fit -- Mind, Body, and Soul."
Academic institutions must work to make academic spaces and cultures truly more inclusive for all, including women of color. The aim of these resources, however, is more specifically to provide resources for self-identified academic women of color (that is, particularly for prospective and current faculty members in higher education), across disciplines and institutions. We hope to help enable connections for those interested, with information, opportunities, peers, mentors, and other colleagues based on topics, needs, and interests.
LinkedIn group page for networking
- To facilitate ongoing, lively interaction among women of color in acdemia, we have created a group on LinkedIn. To join our LinkedIn group, you may search "Academic Women of Color Community " on LinkedIn and send your request with a brief description on what you hope to get out of this group.
Professional Development Opportunities for Academic Women of Color
- Information on regional and national conferences, workshops, and fellowship programs for networking among academic women of color: Annual Conferences and Workshops (while these conferences are past, all listed have a history of continuation, and organizers may be contacted for updated information)
7th Annual Faculty Women of Color in the Academy National Conference
April 11-13, 2019, Blacksburg, Virginia.
On-site registration available.
About: "The FWCA conference offers women of color faculty, university administrators, post-doctoral fellows, graduate students and undergraduates a unique educational and professional opportunity to network, engage, and learn with peers from around the country. The two-day conference features prominent women of color scholars as keynote speakers, panelists, performers, and workshop facilitators. This year’s speakers include Nontomi Naomi Tutu and Aida Hurtado. The Post-conference Academic Writing Retreat will take place April 13, 2019."
For more information, visit here: http://www.cpe.vt.edu/fwca/
NextProf Science: Future Faculty workshop
May 6-9, 2019, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Application for 2019 is closed. Application for 2020 will open in the fall.
About: "NextProf Science is a workshop aimed at future faculty—talented people who are currently advanced doctoral students and postdoctoral trainees. We aim to bring people with a demonstrated commitment to diversity to the University of Michigan campus to show them the benefits and rewards of an academic career, to make connections with U-M faculty and academic leaders, and to network with other participants. The workshop is sponsored by the science and mathematics departments in the U-M College of Literature, Science, and the Arts."
For more information, visit here: https://sites.lsa.umich.edu/nextprof-science/
Women of Color in the Academy
March 22, 2019, Boston, Massachusetts.
Conference was held in March at Northeastern University. Soiree will be hend in May 21, 2019 at Tufts University.
About: "The conference facilitates a more diverse academy by enhancing the timely career progression of primarily faculty, but also of post-doctoral scholars and graduate students. Attendees will have the opportunity to participate in a variety of interactive, hands-on workshops, as well as network with other women of color faculty throughout the Greater Boston region."
For more information, visit here: https://web.northeastern.edu/woc/
The University of Texas Rio Grand Valley ADVANCE: Gender Diversity Matters - Symposium for ADVANCING Latinas in STEM Academic Careers
May 16-17, 2019, South Padre Island, Texas.
There is no registration fee. Deadline to register is April 30th.
About: "The first of a two-part series, through academic presentations and interacive panel discussions, this symposium will address how work-life issues, policies/practices, mentoring, and climate affect the pathways/pipelines, recruitment, retention, and advancement/leadership of Latinas in STEM academic careers."
For more information, visit here: https://www.utrgv.edu/advance/events-training/nsf-includes-symposium/index.htm
Research on the Experiences of Academic Women of Color
While the items below are not intended to offer a comprehesnive list of resources, they are representative of studies related to the roles race, ethnicity, and gender (and in some cases, other aspects of intersectional identities) play in shaping the experiences of academic women of color:
Gutiérrez y Muhs, G., Niemann, Y., González, C., & Harris, A. (Eds). (2012). Presumed incompetent: The intersections of race and class for women in academia. Boulder, CO: The University Press of Colorado.
- This edited volume includes more than 40 authors, who explore race, gender, and class in the working lives of women faculty of color. The personal narratives and qualitative empirical studies reveal both the privileges and the daunting challenges faced by academic women of color as they navigate various stages of their career in higher education, including hiring, promotion, and tenure. The volume also provides wisdom and concrete recommendations for academic women of color.
Turner, C. S. V, & Myers, S. L. (2000). Faculty of color in academe: Bittersweet success. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
- Using both narrative and statistical data, this book provides an in-depth overview of the issues surrounding the successful recruitment, retention, and development of faculty of color. The authors describe similarities and differences experienced by African American, Asian, Pacific American, American Indian, and Latinx men and women faculty in eight mid-western states.
Turner, C. S. V. (2002). Women of color in academe: Living with multiple marginality. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(1), 74-93.
- The article notes that the experiences of faculty women of color are often invisible, hidden within studies that either examine experiences of women faculty or faculty of color. The author provides recommendations to affirm, validate, and value contributions by faculty women of color based on interviews and recent literature.
Williams, J. C. (2014). Double jeopardy? An empirical study with implications for the debates over implicit bias and intersectionality. Harv. JL & Gender, 37, 185-569. Available at: https://repository.uchastings.edu/faculty_scholarship/1278
This NSF study raises questions to the common assumption that gender bias nowadays are more subtle than before. It also identifies specific ways in which the experience of gender bias differs for blacks, whites, Latinas, and Asian Americans.
Research on Gendered Experiences in Academic Settings and Mothers in Academia
King, M. M., Bergstrom, C. T., Correll, S. J., Jacquet, J., & West, J. D. (2017). Men set their own cites high: Gender and self-citation across fields and over time. Socius, 3, 1-22. DOI: 10.1177/2378023117738903.
- This article reveals that a significant gender gap in self-citation rates has remained stable over the last 50 years. Between 1779 and 2011, men cited their own papers 56 percent more than did women. Particularly in the last two decades of data, men self-cited 70 percent more than women. Women are also more than 10 percentage points more likely than men to not cite their own previous work at all. The authors suggest potential mechanisms behind these observations.
Ridgeway, C. L., & Correll, S. J. (2004). Unpacking the gender system: A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender & Society, 18(4), 510-531. DOI: 10.1177/0891243204265269
- The authors provides insights into how the behaviors, performances, and evaluations of otherwise similar men and women become biased in systematic ways. They argue that when gender is salient in social reltional contexts, widely held cultural beliefs about gender function become part of the rules of the game.
West, J. D., Jacquet, J., King, M. M., Correll, S. J., & Bergstrom, C. T. (2013). The role of gender in scholarly authorship. PloS one, 8(7), e66212. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066212.
- The article uncover the subtle ways that gender disparities can occur persistently in scholarly authorship. The findings reveal that even where women and men publish at similar rates, in certain fields, men predominate the prestigious first authorship. Moreover, women authors are significantly underrepresented in single-authored papers.
Castañeda, M., & Isgro, K. (Eds.). (2013). Mothers in academia. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
- This book features intimate stories of being mothers as undergraduates, graduate students, academic staff, administrators, and professors. With the candid portrayals of the experiences of women at various stages of motherhood, the book hopes to vitalize reform in higher education as well as build a sense of community.
Mason, M. A., Wolfinger, N. H., & Goulden, M. (2013). Do babies matter?: Gender and family in the ivory tower.New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
- This book explores how family formation and gender interact to affect the academic careers of men and women, staring from graduate school to junior faculty years and retirement. The authors suggest concrete strategies for transforming higher education into a more family-friendly environment for women at every career stage.
Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2012). Academic motherhood: How faculty manage work and family. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
- This book is based on a longitudinal study that asked how women faculty on the tenure track manage work and family in their early careers (pre-tenure) when their children are young (under the age of five), and then again in mid-career (post-tenure) when their children are older. The women studied work in a range of institutional settings—research universities, comprehensive universities, liberal arts colleges, and community colleges—and in a variety of disciplines, including the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences.
Surviving, Persisting, and Thriving - Resilience and Resistance
Research related to surviving, persisting, and thriving in the face of gender stereotypes, gendered and racialized biases in the department/displinary/institutional culture:
American Psychological Association. (2017). Surviving and thriving in academia: A guide for members of marginalized groups. Available: https://heliuw.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/surviving-and-thriving-in-academia-a-guide-for-members-of-marginalized-groups.pdf
- This APA survival guide was developed specifically to help early career / untenured women faculty and members of marginalized groups. Written and reviewed by psychologists with firsthand experience of the opportunities and challenges academic settings pose for historically excluded groups, it aims to provide concrete resource and advice.
Pasque, P. A. (2015). Disrupting the culture of silence: Confronting gender inequality and making change in higher education. Sterlying, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
- This “tool kit” offers action steps, best practices, and more than 100 online resources for women academics navigating challenging, sometimes hostile, environment of higher education. The book includes experiences of those with under-examined identities such as lesbian, feminist, and contingent faculty. It aims to disrupt complacency amongst those who claim that things are “better” or “good enough.”
Jacobs, L., Cintrón, J., & Canton, C. E. (Eds.). (2002). The politics of survival in academia: Narratives of inequity, resilience, and success. Maryland, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
- This book tells stories of ten women and men faculty of color. With narratives of first-hand experiences of challenges and resilience, it offers insights into the worldview and the survival strageties of these successful faculty of color as well as into issues of inequity in academic cultures.
Readings on career choice, feedback, negotiation, mentoring, and more.
Correll, S. J. (2001). Gender and the career choice process: The role of biased self-assessments. American Journal of Sociology, 106(6), 1691-1730. DOI: 10.1086/321299
- This article explains how cultural beliefs about gender may bias individuals' perceptions of their competence. When early-career individuals act on gender‐differentiated perceptions, cultural beliefs about gender may influence men and women to make substantially different career decisions.
Correll, S., & Simard, C. (2016). Vague feedback is holding women back. Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2016/04/research-vague-feedback-is-holding-women-back
- This article points out that women are systematically less likely to receive specific feedback tied to outcomes, which in turn can disadvantage women at promotion time. That is, when women receive feedback it is often vauge and communication style-oriented whereas men receive specific, task-oriented feedback. Without documentation of concrete accomplishment, it is difficult for a manager to make the case for advancement of women. Investing in more specific, task-oriented feedback is needed for women.
Griffin, K. A., & Reddick, R. J. (2011). Surveillance and sacrifice: Gender differences in the mentoring patterns of Black professors at predominantly white research universities. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1032-1057. DOI: 10.3102/0002831211405025
- This study explores how race and gender interact to shape Black professors' expectations and experiences of mentoring. Their findings suggest that women faculty tend to bear heavier mentoring burden and engage in more close, personal relationships. Men engage in more formal their relationships, partly due to perceived visibility and surveillance, as well as increased likelihood of accusations of inappropriate relationships with female students.
Zambrana, R. E., Ray, R., Espino, M. M., Castro, C., Douthirt Cohen, B., & Eliason, J. (2015). "Don’t leave us behind” The importance of mentoring for underrepresented minority faculty. American Educational Research Journal, 52(1), 40-72. DOI: 10.3102/0002831214563063
- This article examines the mentoring experiences of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty at research-extensive institutions. Based on in-depth interviews and focus group data, the authors argue that the retention and success of URM faculty can be improved by: life course practices geared toward accumulating social capital, valuing of faculty research areas and community-engaged scholarly commitments, and connections with mentors who understand the struggles specific to URMs at predominantly White institutions (PWIs).
Strategies for Advancing the Careers of Women of Color (Association of American Medical Colleges)
- Part I: Institutional Strategies - https://www.aamc.org/download/465028/data/toolkitwfocinstitutionalstrategies.pdf
Part II: Individual Strategies - https://www.aamc.org/download/465030/data/toolkitwfocindividualstrategies.pdf
Stuhlmacher, A. F., & Walters, A. E. (1999). Gender differences in negotiation outcome: A meta‐analysis. Personnel Psychology, 52(3), 653-677. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00175.x
- In the sample of studies, men negotiated significantly better outcomes than women. Gender differences in negotiation outcomes may be moderated by opponent sex, relative power of the negotiator, integrative potential of the task, and mode of communication. None of these hypothesized moderators or several exploratory moderators reversed or eliminated a small but significant gender difference in negotiation outcome. This may lead to perpetuation of gender gap in earnings and glass celing.
Wade, M. E. (2001). Women and salary negotiation: The costs of self-advocacy. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25(1), 65-76. DOI: 10.1111/1471-6402.00008
- Introducing the concepts of self- and other-advocacy, the author argues that women can advocate effectively on behalf of others, but gender-linked stereotypes, roles, and norms constrain them from advocating as freely and effectively for themselves. It is argued that women do not frequently make requests for themselves, because they have learned that they may ultimately lose more than they gain. This gendered difference has implications for ongoing pay and promotion inequities.
Lagace, M. (2003). Negotiating challenges for women leaders. HBS Working Knowledge. Available at : https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/negotiating-challenges-for-women-leaders
- In this interview, they discuss the entittlement effect, social role, and behavioral expectations within society that may lead to differences in men and women's negotiation styles and results. THey also offer practical advice for successful negotiation.
Women of Color in Specific Disciplines and Institutional Settings
Ong, M., Smith, J. M., & Ko, L. T. (2018). Counterspaces for women of color in STEM higher education: Marginal and central spaces for persistence and success. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(2), 206-245. DOI: 10.1002/tea.21417
- This article explores how the obstacles women of color face in STEM education lead them to search for or create counterspaces. The authors describe five ways in which counterspaces operate: in peer‐to‐peer relationships; mentoring relationships; national STEM diversity conferences; STEM and non‐STEM campus student groups; and STEM departments. The findings suggest that counterspaces vary in terms of the race/ethnicity, gender, and power levels of participants and that counterspaces can be physical settings, as well as conceptual and ideological.
Ong, M., Wright, C., Espinosa, L., & Orfield, G. (2011). Inside the double bind: A synthesis of empirical research on undergraduate and graduate women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Harvard Educational Review, 81(2), 172-209.
- The authors review nearly forty years of scholarship on the postsecondary educational experiences of women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Their synthesis of scholarship provides insight into the factors that influence the retention, persistence, and achievement of women of color in STEM fields.
Pittman, C. T. (2010). Race and gender oppression in the classroom: The experiences of women faculty of color with white male students. Teaching Sociology, 38(3), 183-196. DOI: 10.1177/0092055X10370120
- The article examines the classroom experiences of women faculty of color, a group known to spend a disproportionate amount of time teaching. Despite their legitimate authority as professors, women faculty of color at a large, predominantly white research institution describe gendered racism in their classroom interactions with students. Specifically, they depict white male students as challenging their authority, teaching competency, and scholarly expertise, as well as offering subtle and not so subtle threats to their persons and their careers.
Reyes, M. E. (2011). Unique challenges for women of color in STEM transferring from community colleges to universities. Harvard Educational Review, 81(2), 241-263.
- Through interviews conducted with participants in the National Science Foundation–funded Futurebound program, the author reveals that women of color transfer students face bias because of their age, ethnicity, and gender as well as their transfer status, which in turn hinders their sense of belonging. The author proposes programs and policies to improve the transfer rates and retention of women of color into STEM fields.
Sampaio, A. (2006). Women of color teaching political science: Examining the intersections of race, gender, and course material in the classroom. PS: Political Science & Politics, 39(4), 917-922. DOI: 10.1017/S1049096506061191
- The article explores the teaching experiences of women faculty of color in the field of political science. The author explains how multiple layers of sensibilities, abilities, and expectations around race and gender ultimately produce a complex, challenging classroom environment, affecting both classroom instruction and student evaluations.
Institutional Engagement and Inclusivity
Alijoe, N., Blake-Beard, S., Deramo, M., Guthrie, B., Kenney, K., Muller, C., Rinehart, J., Sanford, R., & Vican, S. (2018). Improving institutional commitment for the success of academic women of color through focused confereces. Presented at the 2018 Collaborative Network for Engineering and Computing Diversity Conference. Available at: https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/113/papers/24237/view
- This paper introduces various professional development programs specifically targeted for women of color in academia and their important roles for developing success of faculty of color and institutional excellence.
Piercy, F., Giddings, V., Allen, K., Dixon, B., Meszaros, P., & Joest, K. (2005). Improving campus climate to support faculty diversity and retention: A pilot program for new faculty. Innovative Higher Education, 30(1), 53-66. DOI: 10.1007/s10755-005-3297-z
The authors report on a series of pilot programs that they developed and carried out to support the success and satisfaction of new faculty, particularly faculty of color.
Reading and Reflection:
The Professor Is In
The Chronicle of Higher Education
Diversity- or Gender-focused Centers:
- Shelley Correll's Creating a Level Playing Field
Dual Career Management Toolkit (for you and your partner):
Margaret Neale - Negotiation: Getting What You Want ( with video lecture clip with discussion guide and skill guide)
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